In recent years, with the rapid development of automobile industry, the global car ownership has risen sharply. With the energy crisis and environmental pollution becoming more and more serious, reducing energy consumption has become a serious challenge for the development of automobile industry. Vehicle lightweight is undoubtedly one of the important methods to solve the above problems.
Studies have shown that for every 10% reduction in car weight, fuel efficiency can be increased by 6% - 8%, and emissions can be reduced by about 4%. The proportion of the body system mass to the servicing mass is about 40% - 50%, so the lightweight of the car body is particularly important.
Aluminum alloy has many advantages, such as low density, high strength, strong corrosion resistance, recyclability and so on. In addition, aluminum alloy has high elasticity, high safety and good energy absorption effect in case of collision. The energy absorption of aluminum alloy is about 1.5 times that of steel. Using aluminum alloy sheet instead of traditional low carbon steel plate as body material is one of the important methods to realize lightweight of body.
At present, automobile stamping parts are widely used in automobile body, the main alloy element is magnesium, and the content of magnesium is between 3% and 5%. The main advantages are: high strength, high elongation, good stamping formability, excellent weldability and corrosion resistance. It is mainly used in the parts with relatively complex structure such as body inner panel. Its disadvantage is that it is easy to produce ludes line and delayed yield, and it is mainly used in complex structural parts such as body inner panel.
6000 series is Al Mg Si aluminum alloy, which mainly contains magnesium and silicon. It has the advantages of 4000 series and 5000 series. It is a kind of alloy that can be strengthened after heat treatment. The supersaturated aluminum based solid solution of heat-treated aluminum alloy has aging strengthening characteristics, that is, at room temperature or heated to a certain temperature, its strength and hardness increase with the extension of time, especially after the parts are coated and baked at 185 ℃ for 20 min, the strength increases greatly, but the plasticity decreases. Therefore, the shelf life of 6000 series aluminum alloy plate is generally 6 months, mainly to avoid the reduction of stamping performance due to the change of microstructure. However, 5000 series aluminum alloy has no such characteristics and requirements. The main advantages of 6000 series aluminum alloy are: high strength, excellent plasticity, high corrosion resistance and excellent painting coloring. 6000 series plates are mainly used for body outer panels, such as hood outer panel, front and rear door outer panel, etc.
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